皆様、こんにちにゃあぁ～！Welcome to Kiki+Koko: Let’s NihonGO!! Online, written live before a studio audience at not-so-sunny SpeRaToBo HQ. We’re Kiki+Koko, your guides to Japanese language and culture, leading you through the densest of forests and rockiest of terrains. We’re here to provide the tools you require to traverse Japanese language from the very basest of basics so that one day, you’ll be able to easily hike the mountains and walk the forest floor as if it were a lovely walk in the park, having fun and making the experience truly your own. Whether you realise it or not, all of these lessons have been building upon each other and intertwined in a useful cross-reference that should hopefully not only assist you in finding great use for it, but to also to assist in your schematic processing. The more connections you can form with these vocabulary words and grammatical concepts, the more efficiently you’ll be able to start to work them into your long term memory. And, this lesson, in a strange way, we’re helping you answer some of the questions we presented to you in our First Meeting related lesson. Many questions may have more than one answer, and in your busy schedule, who has time to say two separate sentences to list two different nouns? It’ll sound more natural listing them in the same sentence, anyway. So, today, we’ll be covering just a couple ways to list 名詞, meishi, otherwise known as nouns, in a sentence~!
Previously, we covered ways to list 形容詞, keiyoushi, or adjectives, in Japanese. To get the full story on that, we definitely recommend having a read of that one, as it’ll aid you in this lesson’s general thought process and the angle at which we’ll be discussing this. In the lesson, we mentioned how one of the types of テ形, tekei, actually had similarities to listing nouns. Now, we’d like to give some important clarifications before we press on, as there is definitely a different way in which these are treated. The similarities are closer to listing noun or phrase sentences, so even if you’re eager to jump ahead based on that, do have a moment to focus on each part of speech. We know you’re probably enthusiastic about moving ahead, but be sure to take it at the right pace for the sake of properly learning, みんな~! We always recommend trying what you’ve learnt in order to make mistakes, correct them, and practise, but there are times that it’s best to wait when it’s something we haven’t covered yet, or if you don’t have any person or lessons there to correct you. Always great to practise the materials, though! Your efforts and experiments in language will definitely be helpful. We just want to be sure to keep every aspect of this as clear as we can so that you have enough materials with which you can work. That being said, we’re here right in time to fill you in on the important skill you’ll need if you’re going to properly list nouns in the way that you may have already been practising listing adjectives.
When it comes to listing nouns in Japanese, this is a concept that is definitely completely different than in English. There are some similarities in a few aspects, but with the handful of particles you can use for different types of listing, it becomes different quite quickly. It definitely feels comfortable when you can relate something to your own language such as English, but we want to reiterate from a previous lesson that the best way to approach this is with a totally clear slate cross-referencing only the things you’ve already learnt in Japanese as well as the general structure of things. This method of connecting it to another language may be helpful if you speak German and want to learn Swedish and vice versa or other languages in a similar family. Perhaps if you already speak Korean and you’re learning Japanese, this may be a bit closer to the Japonic language group, however for some reason, even though Japanese has kanji from China and even loan words from Korean, it’s just oddly difficult to fully connect to another language group. So, it’s best to pretend Japanese is like a programme with its own interface different to other systems.
Now, when you list nouns, you’ll need to use some special particles based on what type of listing you plan on doing, and as per usual, these are multi-use tools, so you’ll see them being used in other capacities as well. There are, again, a handful of particles, but today, we’ll be covering two basic ones. Let’s start off with a versatile one.
Particle も| 助詞「も」
「も」has quite a few translations depending on how it’s used. A simple way to translate it for your general thought process would be ‘too’ or ‘also’. One simpler way to use it isn’t necessarily in listing nouns, but we think it’s important to mention.
So, in this scenario, it’s used to replace the は or が which bears different emphasis. We think this actually may assist you in the usage of these particles, so definitely feel free to go back and have a look if you find them troubling. も in this case emphasises whichever part of the sentence it’s placed after. In the former, it’s that ‘I can also speak English‘ with the implication that other language(s) are spoken. In the latter, it’s that ‘I can also speak English’ with the implication that the other person mentioned they speak English, and you’re simply relating that you can as well. Now, this doesn’t exactly function in the same way as listing items, however. This isn’t necessarily the first go-to particle when it comes to listing nouns, but if it’s something where you’re emphasising the ‘also’ or ‘too’ of the list rather than the ‘and’ as in an exhaustive list.
ソーシャルメディア マネージャーも ウェッブマスターもです。
soosharu media maneejyaa mo uebbu masutaa mo desu.
(They are) also social media manager as well as web master.
In this case, you may translate it as ‘(they are) both social media manager as well as web master’. As you can see, there is a bit of polishing that has to be done to adapt this to an English translation, but as it works in Japanese, it’s quite a bit more simple when it comes to word choice with the implications that efficiently show emphasis and function where necessary. This oddly reminds us of one of our videos where this particle is used not quite ad infinitum.
詰まり、 魚も 肉も 卵も 乳製品も 食べない って
つまり、 さかなも にくも たまごも にゅうせいひんも たべない って
tsumari, sakana mo niku mo tamago mo nyuuseihin mo tabenai tte
So, you don’t eat fish or meat or eggs or dairy…
ittai nani wo taberareu no?
What can you even eat?
That sounds healthy.
There’s several layers of jokes, here, but one take can be translated with British sarcasm or Japanese word play as of course saying so seriously as a joke that one lives on air would be closer to a Britishism as, in Japanese, one may find the humour in 駄洒落, dajare, as 空気, kuuki, meaning air sounds like クッキー、kukkii, meaning cookie(s) or biscuits, when specifically drawn out. Of course, explaining a joke to death may cause it to lose its lustre, but hopefully these tactics will assist you in enjoying future jokes~! We sacrifice silly jokes to give you education and a future of enjoying other jokes.
In this case, it’s used as though it’s being said as ‘fish (as well as) meat (as well as) dairy’ in a sort of comedic but inclusive way to emphasise. Usually in exhaustive lists that include the finite items you’re listing, you’ll want to rely on this next particle.
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Particle と| 助詞「と」
Again, this particle has many different uses, but we’re simply focusing on one of them in order for you to get the most use out of it initially without being overloaded with information. と, in the case we’re using it for, is basically used as an ‘and,’ however ‘and’ functions under a different set of rules in Japanese. This particle is used, in this case, to attach to the noun in order to indicate there is a finite list of items being listed. Be sure to keep this finite nature in mind before a future lesson. This can be used with two or more items, and as best as it can be related to English would be as a comma, but even that isn’t quite the same. Just as adjectives have their own way of being connected, nouns and phrases/clauses have their own way of being connected. Let’s have a look at an example in order to get a better idea of how this is used.
木星と 火星に 行ったことないわ。
もくせいと かせいに いったことないわ
mokusei to kasei ni itta koto nai wa.
I haven’t been to Jupiter and Mars.
カバンと パソコンと スマホは どこですか。
かばんと ぱそこんと すまほは どこですか。
kaban to pasokon to sumaho wa doko desuka.
Where is (my) bag, PC, and smart phone?
クラビー・パティは バンと パティと レタスと チーズと オニオンと トマトと ケチャップと マスタードと ピクルスと 上のバンです。
kurabii pati wa ban to pati to retasu to chiizu to onion to tomato to kechappu to masutaado to pikurusu to ue no ban desu.
A Krabby Patty is a bun, patty, lettuce, cheese, onion, tomato, ketchup, mustard, pickles, and top bun.
So, again, whether it’s two or ten nouns in an exhaustive list of finite items, you attach と to the end of it as usual particles are suffixed. Now, this doesn’t quite cover the more advanced topic of clauses and phrases, but that’s something that is a bit much for one day. However, you can now list more than one noun in one sentence~! In these situations, you can see that と connects them as one group making the last particle apply to the whole group. So, you simply suffix it to the last one just as if you were able to take away all of the previous words and have it still function as a sentence.
You can practise these particles using the many vocabulary lessons we’ve introduced. You can list nouns such as the planets of this solar system, modes of transportation, or anything you like, as long as it’s a noun, for now.
飛行機と 電車と 車で 旅行しました。
ひこうきと でんしゃと くるまで りょこうしました。
hikouki to densha to kuruma de ryokou shimashita.
(We) travelled by ______ , ______ , and______.
Yo-hoho. This is an excellent practice opportunity. Test your knowledge and see if you remember each of these vocabulary words from the previous lesson.
Hopefully, this was a helpful lesson that you can use to not only list nouns, but practise vocabulary words in an even bigger way. There are many lists that are common that we mentioned earlier on, and it would definitely be impressive to be able to use these in a sentence in such a way. Perhaps it would help to challenge yourself by listing multiple nouns which may assist you in memorising them. But, for now, be sure to ask us any questions you may have if any of this felt difficult. Even still, there are many questions still to be answered, but there’s no need to rush. Focus on each step of the way, each waypoint of your journey, and enjoy every milestone.
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